“Great Patriotic War”: heroic details of Armenian deeds

“Great Patriotic War”: heroic details of Armenian deeds

German and Soviet Union war has ended with the full victory over the fascism.

Soviet Union has defended its freedom and independence, strengthened security of its borders. Many European nations acquired national independence and were freed from the fascism including Germans. Victory over fascism gave advancement to all parts of the world, the correlation of powers of imperialism and socialism changed towards the latter one, socialism was established in a number of European and Asian countries, global system of socialism was established. National liberation struggle grew to a new level that led to collapse of colonial system of imperialism. Workers and communist movements strengthened in capitalistic countries.

This war was the most difficult in the history: more than 20 million Soviet citizens have died (40% of all the victims during the Second World War), hundreds of cities were destroyed, thousands of villages. Material damages were 2569 billion rubles.

Nations of the Soviet Union and its military forces played a decisive role in the victory in the war, almost 4 years 190-270 divisions of enemies fought against Soviet army.

According to German programs, USSR area should have been divided into some parts. One of them would be called Caucasus with Tbilisi center to also include “Armenian commissariat”.

Germany employed Armenian deported figures that considered the real condition against USSR war the restoration of independence of Armenia. ”Armenian National Council” (headed by Artashes Abeghyan) functioned together with military authorities of Germany.

Nazi Germany used also the reserves of Armenian prisoners of war by shaping military forces Armenian legion. Armenian figures observed the legion as the basis of national army of Armenia. Russian-Turkish relationships, till World War II have already had a long history of conflicts.

Although Russian and Turkish relationships improved during the government of Mustafa Kemal Atarutk, before the war they again deteriorated. Before the war Turkey has signed Treaty of Amity with the Third Reich and started to provide chromium to the latter one. It concentrated 26 divisions on its border thus becoming threat for the USSR.  USSR had to keep some military forces on the border.

Armenian participants of Germany – Soviet Union war were around 500000 people, 300000 being from Armenia and others were from other republics of the Soviet Union. 200000 Armenian soldiers and officers have died at the war for the protection of the Soviet Union.

In 1941-43, 20000 political party representatives have gone to the battlefield as well as 70000 Cominterns. Based on the order of first secretary of Central committee of ACP, member of Military Council of Caucasus battlefield Grigor Harutyunyan as of 29 June, 1941, headed all the works to transfer national economy of Armenia to the military route. With their heroic fight in all the battlefields, Armenians had their strong contribution in the defeat of the enemy.

In the end of 1941, Soviet Government decreed a decision to establish national units in the military forces of the country. Political and Soviet bodies of the Republic put efforts to form Armenian national military units, recruit their staff, with military equipment, and weaponry provision.

89th Armenian Tamanyan division, 76th shooting division, 408, 409, 390th divisions had a huge military road. Armenian divisions participated in defense of Caucasus, Crimea, liberation battles of Soviet countries and Eastern Europe nations. 89th Armenian division finished its military road in Berlin, 409th – in Czechoslovakia. In all the main battles during German and Soviet war, defense of Moscow and Leningrad, Odessa and Sevastopol, Caucasus, Volga and Kursk bow, final battles in the Far East against Japanese imperialism, Armenians had their active participation in the battles.

103 Armenians were awarded titles of heroes of the Soviet Union (pilot Nelson Stepanyan – double hero), 23 Armenian soldiers have become Knight of three Orders of Medal of Honor, and more than 70000 were awarded Medals and Orders.

About 60 generals were in the composition of the military forces of the Soviet Union that governed huge military formations. They were general of the army Hovhannes Baghramyan (later, Marshal of the Soviet Union, double hero),  Admiral of the Fleet of Soviet Union Hovhannes Isakov, Marshal of the Aviation Sergey Khudyakov (A. Khanferyants), Hamazasp Babajanyan (later, Chief marshal of the armored troops), generals   Mikayel Parseghov, Sergey Galajev, Sargis Martirosyan, Ivan Vekilov, Haik MartirosyanNver Safaryan, Sergey KarapetyanHaik Tumanyan, Bagrat Arushanyan and others.

The letter of the Armenian nation to their sons in war in 1943 had great significance from the viewpoint of connection between the battlefield and supporters for the strengthening of ideology and patriotism. It was signed by more than 335000 workers.

Armenian nation also participated in the partisan movement (Armenian partisan detachment of Mikoyan, “Haghtanak” detachment, 41st partisan detachment) in temporarily occupied territories (especially in Belarus, Ukraine, North Caucasus, Crimea, Leningrad region).

Many Armenian soldiers operated in anti-fascist undercover organizations (Krasnodar “Young Guards” etc.).

Armenian Prisoners of War that ran from Fascist captivity participated in the Resistance movements of France, ItalyGreece, Czechoslovakia, YugoslaviaBulgariaPoland and other countries.

Armenians living in foreign countries were happy to respond to the letter of the famous Soviet Armenia workers of culture in 1941 that called Armenians living in foreign countries to unite against the fascism.

Many advanced organizations were formed in Armenian colonies that assisted Soviet military power and Soviet Armenia and established strong connections with them. In 1943-44 they donated to build “Sasuntsi Davit” tank column. Many Armenians of Diaspora actively participated in Resistance movement (Misak Manushyan detachment in France, «Freedom» Armenian partisan detachment in Greece etc.).